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SDSU SCHOOL OF THEATRE, TELEVISION, AND FILM

RESEARCH

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BOXED IN: EMPLOYMENT OF BEHIND-THE-SCENES AND ON-SCREEN WOMEN IN 2013-14 PRIME-TIME TELEVISION.

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EXCERPT

In 2013-14, women comprised 27% of creators, executive producers, producers, writers, directors, editors, and directors of photography working on prime-time programs airing on the broadcast networks. This represents a decrease of 1 percentage point from 2012-13. On screen, women accounted for 42% of all speaking characters, a decrease of 1 percentage point from 2012-13. This year's study also reports the findings of an expanded sample including programs airing on the broadcast networks, on basic and paid cable channels, and available through Netflix.

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INDEPENDENT WOMEN: BEHIND-THE-SCENES EMPLOYMENT ON FESTIVAL FILMS IN 2013-14

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EXCERPT

This study provides employment figures for domestically and independently produced feature-length documentaries and narrative films screening at 23 high-profile film festivals in the United States. Women comprised 26% of individuals working as directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and cinematographers. This is even with the figure from 2011-12 and up 2 percentage points from 24% in 2008-09. The percentage of women working on documentaries continues to be larger (28%) than the percentage working on narrative features (24%). Women accounted for 23% of directors working on all of the films considered, 28% of directors working on documentaries and 18% working on narrative features.

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IT'S A MAN'S (CELLULOID) WORLD: ON-SCREEN REPRESENTATIONS OF FEMALE CHARACTERS IN THE TOP 100 FILMS OF 2013

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EXCERPT

Female characters remained dramatically under-represented as protagonists, major characters, and speaking (major and minor) characters in the top grossing films of 2013. Females accounted for 15% of protagonists, 29% of major characters, and 30% of all speaking characters. Female characters were younger than their male counterparts and were more likely than males to have an identifiable marital status. Further, female characters were less likely than males to have clearly identifiable goals or be portrayed as leaders of any kind.

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THE CELLULOID CEILING: BEHIND-THE-SCENES EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN ON THE TOP 250 FILMS OF 2013

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EXCERPT

Women comprised 16% of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 (domestic) grossing films of 2013. This figure represents a decrease of two percentage points from 2012.

In 2013, women accounted for 6% of (U.S.) directors. If foreign films in the top 250 are included, this figure increases to 8%. In other roles, women comprised 10% of writers, 15% of executive producers, 25% of producers, 17% of editors, and 3% of cinematographers.

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BOXED IN: EMPLOYMENT OF BEHIND-THE-SCENES AND ON-SCREEN WOMEN IN 2012-13 PRIME-TIME TELEVISION

Report

EXCERPT

In 2012-13, women accounted for 28% of creators, executive producers, producers, directors, writers, editors, and directors of photography working on prime-time programs airing on the broadcast networks. This represents an increase of two percentage points from 2011-12 and a recent historical high. On screen, females comprised 43% of all speaking characters. This figure is even with the historical high set in 2007-08. However, many gender stereotypes remain. Female characters are younger than their male counterparts, and are less likely than males to be seen at work and actually working.

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GENDER @ THE MOVIES: ON-LINE FILM CRITICS AND CRITICISM

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EXCERPT

This study examined over 2,000 reviews penned by 145 writers designated as "top critics" on Rotten Tomatoes over a two-month period in the spring of 2013. Findings indicate that top male critics wrote 82% and top female critics 18% of the film reviews featured on the film review aggregator site. 78% of the top critics writing during the study period were male, 22% were female. While film critics reviewed higher proportions of films directed and/or written by individuals of their same sex (giving films made by men greater visibility), on average, critics did not privilege those films by writing longer reviews or awarding them substantially higher ratings.

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THE CELLULOID CEILING II: PRODUCTION DESIGN, PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT, SOUND DESIGN, KEY GRIPS, AND GAFFERS

Report

EXCERPT

For over a decade, The Celluloid Ceiling study has tracked women's representation as directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and cinematographers on the top 250 domestic grossing films. In an effort to assess the larger picture of women's employment in film, this study monitored their representation as production designers (20%), production managers/production supervisors (25%/44%), sound designers/supervising sound editors (5%/5%), key grips (1%), and gaffers (1%).

The study analyzed behind-the-scenes employment of 1,318 individuals working on the top 250 domestic grossing films of 2008 with combined box office grosses of approximately $9.4 billion.

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WOMEN @ THE BOX OFFICE

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This study asked two basic questions: how do films with at least one woman working in a key behind-the-scenes role fare at the box office when compared to those employing only men in the same roles, and how do films featuring female protagonists fare at the box office when compared to those featuring males.

Examining the top 100 worldwide grossing films of 2007, the study found that when women and men filmmakers have similar budgets for their films, the resulting box office grosses are also similar. In other words, the sex of filmmakers does not determine box office grosses.

In addition, when the size of the budget is held constant, films with female protagonists or prominent females in an ensemble cast earn similar box office grosses (domestic, international, opening weekend) and DVD sales as films with male protagonists. Because films featuring male protagonists have larger budgets, they earn larger box office grosses. However, the differences in box office grosses are not caused by the sex of the protagonist but by the size of the budget. Films with larger budgets generate larger grosses, regardless of the sex of the protagonist.

 

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