BOXED IN: PORTRAYALS OF FEMALE CHARACTERS AND EMPLOYMENT OF BEHIND-THE-SCENES WOMEN IN 2014-15 PRIME-TIME TELEVISION.
•The Boxed In Report
In 2014-15, women comprised 42% of all speaking characters on broadcast television programs and 40% of all characters on the broadcast, cable, and Netflix programs considered. Behind the scenes, women accounted for 27% of creators, directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and directors of photography working on broadcast programs and 25% of those working in these key roles on broadcast, cable, and Netflix programs. Programs with at least one woman executive producer or creator featured a higher percentage of female characters and employed substantially greater percentages of women writers, directors, and editors than programs with exclusively male executive producers or creators.
INDEPENDENT WOMEN: BEHIND-THE-SCENES EMPLOYMENT ON INDEPENDENT FILMS IN 2014-15
•The Independent Women Report
In 2014-15, women comprised 26% of all directors, writers, executive producers, producers, editors, and cinematographers working on documentaries and narrative features screening at more than 20 high-profile film festivals in the United States. This represents no change from the previous year. Behind-the-scenes women continue to fare better in documentary than in narrative films, accounting for 30% of individuals working on documentaries and 24% of those working on narrative features. Women comprised 23% of directors on all of the films considered, 29% on documentaries and 18% on narrative features.
IT'S A MAN'S (CELLULOID) WORLD: ON-SCREEN REPRESENTATIONS OF FEMALE CHARACTERS IN THE TOP 100 FILMS OF 2014
•The It's a Man's (Celluloid) World Report
In 2014, females comprised 12% of protagonists, 29% of major characters, and 30% of all speaking characters in the top 100 grossing films. Gender stereotypes remained abundant in last year's films. Female characters were younger than their male counterparts, and were more likely to be identified solely by personal life-related roles such as wife, mother and girlfriend. Regarding racial and ethnic diversity, while the percentages of Black female and Latina characters declined slightly, the percentage of Asian females increased slightly. 11% of female characters were Black, 4% were Latina, and 4% were Asian.
THE CELLULOID CEILING: BEHIND-THE-SCENES EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN ON THE TOP 250 FILMS OF 2014
•The Celluloid Ceiling Report
Women comprised 17% of all directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and cinematographers working on the top 250 (domestic) grossing films of 2014. This represents an increase of 1 percentage point from 2013 but is the same percentage of women working in these roles in 1998.
In 2014, women accounted for 7% of directors, up 1 percentage point from 2013 but down 2 percentage points from 9% in 1998. In other roles, women comprised 11% of writers, 23% of producers, 19% of executive producers, 18% of editors, and 5% of cinematographers.
GENDER @ THE MOVIES: ON-LINE FILM CRITICS AND CRITICISM
•The Gender @ the Movies Report
This study examined over 2,000 reviews penned by 145 writers designated as "top critics" on Rotten Tomatoes over a two-month period in the spring of 2013. Findings indicate that top male critics wrote 82% and top female critics 18% of the film reviews featured on the film review aggregator site. 78% of the top critics writing during the study period were male, 22% were female. While film critics reviewed higher proportions of films directed and/or written by individuals of their same sex (giving films made by men greater visibility), on average, critics did not privilege those films by writing longer reviews or awarding them substantially higher ratings.
THE CELLULOID CEILING II: PRODUCTION DESIGN, PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT, SOUND DESIGN, KEY GRIPS, AND GAFFERS
•The Celluloid Ceiling II Report
For over a decade, The Celluloid Ceiling study has tracked women's representation as directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and cinematographers on the top 250 domestic grossing films. In an effort to assess the larger picture of women's employment in film, this study monitored their representation as production designers (20%), production managers/production supervisors (25%/44%), sound designers/supervising sound editors (5%/5%), key grips (1%), and gaffers (1%).
The study analyzed behind-the-scenes employment of 1,318 individuals working on the top 250 domestic grossing films of 2008 with combined box office grosses of approximately $9.4 billion.
WOMEN @ THE BOX OFFICE
This study asked two basic questions: how do films with at least one woman working in a key behind-the-scenes role fare at the box office when compared to those employing only men in the same roles, and how do films featuring female protagonists fare at the box office when compared to those featuring males.
Examining the top 100 worldwide grossing films of 2007, the study found that when women and men filmmakers have similar budgets for their films, the resulting box office grosses are also similar. In other words, the sex of filmmakers does not determine box office grosses.
In addition, when the size of the budget is held constant, films with female protagonists or prominent females in an ensemble cast earn similar box office grosses (domestic, international, opening weekend) and DVD sales as films with male protagonists. Because films featuring male protagonists have larger budgets, they earn larger box office grosses. However, the differences in box office grosses are not caused by the sex of the protagonist but by the size of the budget. Films with larger budgets generate larger grosses, regardless of the sex of the protagonist.