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The organizations, websites, books, and academic articles listed below do not represent a comprehensive listing of resources. Rather, the following lists offer a starting place for those interested in learning more about women in television and film.

Movies by Women. The goals of this organization are to increase the number of women directors working in film, television or other media, and to build an audience for women directed films. This site hosts the The First Weekenders Group that encourages movie-goers to attend films made by women filmmakers on opening weekend. The site also offers podcasts with women filmmakers and scholars.
Women’s Media Center. The mission of WMC is to ensure that women and women’s experiences are reflected in the media. The site features stories about women in the news and sponsors advocacy campaigns on behalf of women.
About-Face. The mission of this media literacy organization is to equip girls and women with the tools to understand and resist harmful media messages that affect self-esteem and body image.
American Women in Radio and Television. The AWRT has chapters throughout the country and supports women in electronic media through education and advocacy.
New York Women in Film and Television. This industry organization represents the interests of women on screen and behind the scenes in film, television, and new media.
Women in Film and Television/LA. This organization is dedicated to helping women achieve their highest potential within the global entertainment, communications and media industries and to preserving the legacy of women in these industries.
Girls, Women + Media Project. This organization works to increase awareness of how pop culture and media represent, effect, employ, and serve girls and women.
Alliance of Women Directors. The purpose of this organization is to provide a community of peers for mutual support and to further the art, craft and visibility of women directors in the film and television industry.

Media Report to Women. This site provides summaries of academic research and analyses of women and media.
Traction. This interactive on-line magazine features stories and information designed to promote, mentor, and empower women in film and television.


Abramowitz, R. (2000). Is that a gun in your pocket? Women’s experience of power in Hollywood. New York: Random House.

Acker, A. (1991).  Reel women: Pioneers of the cinema, 1986 to the present. New York: Continuum.

Akass, K., & McCabe, J. (2004). Reading Sex and the City. New York: I. B. Tauris.

Alley, R. S., & Brown, I. B. (2001). Women television producers: Transformation of the male medium. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Baehr, J., & Dyer, G. (Eds.) (1987). Boxed in: Women and television. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Basinger, J. (1993). A woman’s view: How Hollywood spoke to women, 1930-1960. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Beauchamp, C. (1998). Without lying down: Frances Marion and the powerful women of early Hollywood. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Bell, E. , Haas, L., & Sells, L. (1995). From mouse to mermaid: The politics of film gender and culture. Bloomington, IN:  University of Indiana Press.

De Laurentis, T. (1984). Alice doesn’t: Feminism, semiotics, cinema. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Doane, M. A. et al. (Eds.). (1984). Re-vision: Essays in feminist film criticism. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.

Douglas, S. J. (1994). Where the girls are: Growing up female with the mass media. New York: Times Books.

Dow, B. J. (1996). Prime-time feminism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Fournier, G. (2007). Thelma & Louise and women in Hollywood. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.

Francke, L. (1994). Script girls: Women screenwriters in Hollywood. London: British Film Institute.

Gamman, L., & Marshment, M. (Eds.). (1988). The female gaze: Women as viewers of popular culture. London: Women’s Press.

Grant, B. K. (Ed.) (1996). The dread of difference: Gender and the horror film. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Green, P. (1998). Cracks in the pedestal: Ideology and gender in Hollywood. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Gregory, M. (2002). Women who run the show. New York: St. Martins Press.

Haskell, M. (1974). From reverence to rape: The treatment of women in the movies. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Haskell, M. (1997). Holding my own in no man’s land: Women and men and film and feminists. New York: Oxford University Press.

Heide, M. J.  (1995). Television culture and women’s lives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Heinecken, D. (2003). The warrior women of television: A feminist cultural analysis of the new female body in popular media. New York: Peter Lang.

Helford, E. R. (Ed.) (2000). Fantasy girls: Gender in the new universe of science fiction and fantasy television. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hollinger, K. (1998). In the company of women: Contemporary female friendship films. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hooks, b. (1996). Reel to real: Race, sex and class at the movies. New York: Routledge.

Hurd, M. G. (2007). Women directors & their films. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Inness, S. (Ed.) (2004). Action chicks: New images of tough women in popular culture. New York: Routledge.

Isaacs, S. (1999). Brave dames and wimpettes: What women are really doing on page and screen. New York: The Ballantine Publishing Group.

Jermyn, D., & Redmond, S. (Eds.) (2003). The cinema of Kathryn Bigelow: Hollywood transgressor. London: Wallflower Press.

Johnston, C. (Ed.). (1975). The work of Dorothy Arzner: Towards a feminist cinema. London: British Film Institute.

Jowett, L. (2005). Sex and the slayer: A gender studies primer for the Buffy fan. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Kaplan, E. A. (Ed.) (1980). Women in film noir. London: British Film Insitute.

Kaveney, R. (2002). Reading the Vampire Slayer: An unofficial critical companion to Buffy and Angel. New York: Tauris Parke Paperbacks.

Kearney, M. C. (2006). Girls make media. New York: Routlege.

Khouri, C. (1991). Thelma & Louise and Something to Talk About. New York: Grove Press.

Kord, S., & Krimmer, E. (2005). Hollywood divas, indie queens, & TV heroines. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Krasilovsky, A. (1997). Women behind the camera. Westport, CT: Praiger Publishers.

Kuhn, A. (Ed.) (1995). Queen of the B’s: Ida Lupino behind the camera. Westport: Greenwood Press.

Lane, C. (2000). Feminist Hollywood: From Born in Flames to Point Break. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Lasalle, M. (2000). Complicated women: Sex and power in pre-code Hollywood. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Lawrence, A. (1991). Echo and narcissus: Women’s voices in classical Hollywood cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Levy, A. (2005). Female chauvinist pigs: Women and the rise of raunch culture. New York: Free Press

Mayne, J. (1990). The woman at the keyhole: Feminism and women’s cinema. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Mayne, J. (1994). Directed by Dorothy Arzner. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Mazzarella, S., & Pecora, N. O. (Eds.). (1998). Growing up girls: Popular culture and the construction of identity. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

McCreadie, M. (1994). The women who write the movies. New York: Carol Publishing Group.

Meehan, D. (1983). Ladies of the evening: Women characters of prime-time television. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Muller, E. (2001). Dark city dames: The wicked women of film noir. New York: Harper-Collins.

Mulvey, L. (1989). Visual and other pleasures. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Polan, D. B. (2002). Jane Campion. London: British Film Institute.

Pomerance, M. (Ed.) (2001). Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls: Gender in film at the end of the twentieth century. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Pribam, E. D. (Ed.). (1988). Female spectators: Looking at film and television. New York: Verso.

Obst, L. (1996). Hello, he lied. Boston: Little Brown and Company.

Quart, B. K. (1988). Women directors: The emergence of a new cinema. New York: Praeger.

Redding, J. M., & Brownworth, V. A. (1997). Film fatales: Independent women directors. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.

Rich, B. R. (1998). Chick flicks: Theories and memories of the feminist film movement. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Richards, A. (2001). Girl directors: A how-to guide for the first-time flat-broke filmmaker. Girl Press.

Rosen, M. (1973). Popcorn Venus: Women, movies and the American dream. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan.

Rowe, K. (1995). The unruly woman: Gender and the genres of laughter. University of Texas Press.

Seger, L. (1996). When women call the shots: The developing power and influence of women in television and film. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Silverman, K. (1988). The acoustic mirror: The female voice in psychoanalysis and cinema. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press.

Slide, A. (1977). Early women directors. Cranbury, NJ: A.S. Barnes and Co., Inc.

Slide, A. (1996). The silent feminists: America’s first women directors. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

South, J. B. (2003). Buffy the Vampire Slayer and philosophy: Fear and trembling in Sunnydale. Chicago: Open Court.

Sova, D. B. (1998). Women in Hollywood: From vamp to studio head. New York: Fromm International.

Sweeney, K. (2008). Maiden USA: Girl icons come of age. New York: Peter Lang.

Tasker, Y. (1993). Spectacular bodies: Gender, genre and the action cinema. London: Routledge.

Tasker, Y. (1998). Working girls: Gender and sexuality in popular cinema. London: Routledge.

Wilcox, R. (2005). Why Buffy matters: The art of Buffy the Vampire Slayer. New York: I.B. Tauris.

Wilcox, R. V., & Lavery, D. (Ed.) (2002). Fighting the forces: What’s at stake in Buffy the Vampire Slayer.  Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Wolf, N. (1991). The beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women. New York: Doubleday.


Alcock, B., & Robson, J. (1990). Cagney and Lacey revisited. Feminist Review, 35, 42-53.

Atkin, D. J., Moorman, J., & Lin, C. A. (1991). Ready for prime time: Network series devoted to working women in the 1980s. Sex Roles, 25, 677-685.

Banet-Weiser, S. (2004). Girls rule!: Gender, feminism, and Nickelodeon. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 21(2), 119-139.

Bazzini, D. G., McIntosh, W. D., Smith, S. M., Cook, S., & Harris, C. (1997). The aging woman in popular film: Underrepresented, unattractive, unfriendly, and unintelligent. Sex Roles, 36, 531-543.

Brasfield, R. (2006). Rereading Sex and the City: Exposing the hegemonic feminist narrative. Journal of Popular Film & Television, 34(3), 130-138.

Butler, J. (1993). Redesigning discourse: Feminism, the sitcom, and Designing Women. Journal of Film and Video, 45, 13-26.

Byars, J.  (1987). Reading feminine discourse: Prime-time television in the U.S. Communication, 9, 289-303.

Cooper, B. (2001). Unapologetic women, “comic men” and feminine spectatorship in David E. Kelley’s Ally McBeal. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 18(4), 416-435.

Davis, D. M. (1990). Portrayals of women in prime-time network television: Some demographic characteristics. Sex Roles, 23(5/6), 325-332.

Early, F. H. (2001). Staking her claim: Buffy the Vampire Slayer as transgressive woman warrior. Journal of Popular Culture, 35(3), 11-27.

Elasmar, M., Hasegawa, K., & Brain, M. (1999). The portrayal of women in U.S. prime time television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43(1), 20-24.

Fregoso, R. L. (1995). Hanging out with the homegirls? Allison Anders’ Mi Vida Loca. Cineaste, 21(3), 36-38.

Glascock, J. (2001). Gender roles on prime-time network television: Demographics and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45, 656-669.

Gunter, B.  (1986). Television and sex role stereotyping. London: John Libbey.

Hains, R. (2007). Inventing the teenage girl: The construction of female identity in Nickelodeon’s My Life as a Teenage Robot. Popular Communication, 5(3), 191-213.

Japp, P. (1991). Gender and work in the 1980s: Television’s working women as displaced persons. Women’s Studies in Communication, 14, 49-74.

Lauzen, M. M., Dozier, D. M., & Horan, N. (2008). Constructing gender stereotypes through social roles in prime-time television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52(2), 1-15.

Lauzen, M. M., Dozier, D. M., & Reyes, B. (2007). From adultescents to zoomers: An examination of age and gender in prime-time television. Communication Quarterly, 55(3), 343-357

Lauzen, M. M., Dozier, D. M., & Cleveland, E. (2006). Genre matters: An examination of women working behind the scenes and on-screen portrayals in reality versus scripted prime-time programming. Sex Roles, 55(7-8), 445-455.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2005). Recognition and respect revisited: Portrayals of age and gender in prime-time television. Mass Communication and Society, 8, 241-257.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2005). Maintaining the double standard: Portrayals of age and gender in popular films. Sex Roles, 52(7/8), 437-446.

Lauzen, M. M., Dozier, D. M., & Bradley, R. (2004).  Evening the score in prime time: The relationship between behind-the-scenes women and on-screen portrayals in the 2002-03 season. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(3), 484-500.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2002). You look mahvelous: An examination of gender and appearance comments in the 1999-2000 prime-time season. Sex Roles, 46(11/12), 429-437.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M. (2002). Equal time in prime time? Scheduling favoritism and gender on the broadcast networks. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 46, 137-153.

Lauzen, M. M., Dozier, D. M., & Hicks, M. V. (2001). Prime-time players and powerful prose: The role of women in the 1997-98 season. Mass Communication and Society, 4(1), 39-59.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M.  (1999). The role of women on screen and behind the scenes in the television and film industries: Review of a program of research. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 23, 355-373.

Lauzen, M. M., & Dozier, D. M.  (1999).  Making a difference in prime time: Women on screen and behind the scenes in the 1995-96 television season. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43, 1-19.

Lee, J. (1992). Subversive sitcoms: Roseanne as inspiration for feminist resistance. Women’s Studies, 21, 87-101.

Mayerle, J. (1987). Character shaping genre in Cagney and Lacey. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 31, 133-151.

McNeil, J. (1975). Feminism, femininity, and the television series: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting, 17, 259-269.

Ouellette, L. (2002). Victims no more: Postfeminism, television, and Ally McBeal. The Communication Review, 5, 315-335.

Press, A., & Strathman, T. (1993). Work, family, and social class in TV images of women: Prime-time television and the construction of postfeminism. Women and Language, 16, 7-15.

Rabinovitz, L. (1989). Sitcoms and single moms: Representations of feminism on American TV. Cinema Journal, 29, 3-19.

Seggar, J. F., & Wheeler, P. (1973). World of work on TV: Ethnic and sex representation in TV drama. Journal of Broadcasting, 17(2), 201-214.

Signorielli, N. (1982). Marital status in television drama: A case of reduced options. Journal of Broadcasting, 26(2), 585-597.

Signorielli, N. (1989). Television and conceptions about sex roles: Maintaining conventionality and the status quo. Sex Roles, 21, 341-360.

Signorielli, N., & Bacue, A. (1999). Recognition and respect: A content analysis of prime-time television characters across three decades. Sex Roles, 40, 527-544.

Signorielli, N., & Kahlenberg, S. (2004). Television’s world of work in the nineties. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45, 4-22.

Vande Berg, L. R., & Streckfuss, D. (1992). Prime-time television’s portrayal of women and work: A demographic profile. Journal ofBroadcasting & Electronic Media, 36, 195-208.

Vernon, J. A., Williams, J. A., Phillips, T., & Wilson, J. (1991). Media stereotyping: A comparison of the way elderly women and men are portrayed on prime-time television. Journal of Women & Aging, 2, 55-68.

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